The roles of state actors and civil society organizations in mining conflicts
Mining conflicts between companies and communities are increasing, which involves protests, the use of force and legal proceedings against mining companies for environmental or social issues. State actors who are pro-business increase conflict intensity when combined civil society organizations.
Communities and civil society organizations perceive injustice when governments are pro-business. Therefore, the involvement of state actors who have pro-social orientations help to lower conflict intensity by balancing the power between companies and communities.